Hudson CG. Benchmarks for Needed Psychiatric Beds for the United States: A Test of a Predictive Analytics Model. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Nov 20;18(22):12205. doi: 10.3390/ijerph182212205.
Steadman, H.J. (2009). [Lifetime experience of trauma among participants in the cross-site evaluation of the TCE for Jail Diversion Programs initiative]. Unpublished raw data
Weisel, Deborah Lamm. “Analyzing Repeat Victimization,” Center for Problem Oriented Policing, 2005.
Russell PL, Nurius PS, Herting JR, Walsh E, Thompson EA. Violent Victimization and Perpetration: Joint and Distinctive Implications for Adolescent Development. Vict Offender. 2010;5(4):329-353. doi: 10.1080/15564886.2010.509655.
Delgado, SA. et al. “The Effects of Cure Violence in the South Bronx and East New York, Brooklyn”. John Jay School of Criminal Justice.
Delgado, SA. et al. “In Denormalizing Violence: A Series of Reports from the John Jay College Evaluation of Cure Violence Programs in New York City”. John Jay College of Criminal Justice. (2017

Scaling Safety is the concept, backed by research, that if we support investments in key community-based public safety solutions, we can prevent violence and create safer communities.

Scaling Safety Means Investing in...

What is Community Violence Intervention (CVI)?

Community violence intervention (CVI) is a phrase that describes a range of community outreach programs focused on intervening with people who are vulnerable to shooting or getting shot to prevent violence. CVI programs primarily focus on gun violence in communities with concentrated cycles of violence. 

Violence Interrupters or Street Outreach Programs hire and train workers who actively work to mediate conflicts and prevent retaliatory violence between those at risk of committing or becoming the victims of violence. These workers are often more times than not directly linked to the communities they serve.

Hospital-Based Violence Intervention Programs (HVIPs) are typically located in trauma centers and emergency departments. They engage patients while in the hospital to reduce the chance of retaliation, violent injury recurrence, and individuals who do not typically receive services.

Examples of Community Violence Intervention Programs

Community Based Public Safety Collective

National Organization

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ROCA Impact

Baltimore, Maryland

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Newark Community Street Team

Newark, New Jersey

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How Community Violence Intervention Programs Make Communities Safer

The study found those neighborhoods saw lower rates of homicides committed with a gun compared to similar neighborhoods in Charlotte ( The study found those neighborhoods saw lower rates of homicides committed with a gun compared to similar neighborhoods in Charlotte, 2023). Read HERE.

A multi-city report says that the CVI program was associated with reductions in homicides in 8 of the 11 sites studied, with statistically significant reductions in four sites ( Estimating the Effects of Safe Streets Baltimore on Gun Violence, 2023). Read HERE.

A multi-city study says a 30 to 60 percent reduction in gun homicides (Healing Communities in crisis, 2016). Read HERE.

Cities such as Baltimore, New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago see a 30 percent reduction in shootings and killings (The Evidence of Effectiveness, 2021). Read HERE.

CVI strategies need a grasp of successful elements and ways to mitigate challenges to reduce the violence they desire (Implementing Outreach-Based Community Violence Intervention Programs, 2022). Read HERE.

Oakland, California, has cut its annual shootings and homicides nearly in half since 2012 ( A Case in Hope, 2019). Read HERE.

South Baltimore in Cherry Hill saw a 56% reduction in homicides and a 34% reduction in nonfatal shootings ( Cure Violence: A Public Health Model to Reduce Gun Violence, 2015). Read HERE.

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What is Mental Health Crisis Response?

Mental health crisis intervention teams are affordable, safe, and effective ways of responding quickly to people experiencing unaddressed health issues without requiring law enforcement response. Crisis teams allow medical and health responders to replace law enforcement in reacting to situations involving individuals with a mental health challenge and refer the individual to adequate treatment.

Examples of Mental Health Crisis Response Programs

Crisis Assistance Helping Out On The Streets (CAHOOTS)

Eugene, Oregon

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Support Team Assisted Response (STAR) Program

Denver, Colorado

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Street Crisis Response Teams (SCRT)

San Francisco, California

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How Mental Health Crisis Response Programs Make Communities Safer

Approximately 14.2 million adults live with a serious mental illness. In 2020, only 64.5% of
those people received treatment ( Mental Health Alternative First Response: Community Map, 2023). Read MORE.

In 2017, the Crisis Assisting Helping Out on the Streets (CAHOOTS) teams answered 17% of the Eugene Police Department’s overall call volume. The program saves the city of Eugene an estimated $8.5 million in public safety spending annually. ( CAHOOTS & Police Departments, 2020). Read MORE.

Historically, as many as 7–10% of US police contacts have involved persons with mental illnesses, with a disproportionate amount of these encounters resulting in arrests, usually for minor offenses ( Crisis Intervention Teams may prevent arrests of people with mental illnesses, 2010). Read MORE.

According to a national survey, in the face of “severe budget constraints,” most voters (52% to 40%) prefer that their governments “hire additional healthcare experts to create or expand a mobile crisis response unit” than “hire additional police officers”( Voters Strongly Support Mobile Crisis Response Despite Opposition Messages, 2022). Read MORE.

Between January 1st, 2022, and July 1st, 2022, The Support Team Assisted Response (STAR) of Denver, Colorado, has responded to 2,837 calls for service (Support Team Assisted Response Mid-year Report, 2022). Read MORE.

Federal, state, and local mental health authorities are increasingly investing in the crisis care continuum, including call centers, mobile crisis teams, and crisis care facilities. Increased federal appropriations to states, including via an additional Mental Health Block Grant set-aside, are urgently needed. Other needed components include implementation of a national three-digit crisis hotline and additional research on and evaluation of crisis services( New opportunities to improve mental health crisis systems, 2021). Read MORE.

According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration, 24 staff working as medics, counselors, caseworkers, and administrators would be needed to staff a mobile crisis response unit (Behavioral Health Workforce Report, 2020). Read MORE.

Co-responder models evidenced improved outcomes compared to police only models.. [and] research on youth models and crisis resolution home treatment suggested positive outcomes ( Re-examining mental health crisis intervention: A rapid review comparing outcomes across police, co-responder, and non-police models, 2022). Read MORE.

A national report says that to have the police department respond to the calls Crisis Assisting Helping Out on the Streets (CAHOOTS) currently covers, it would cost an additional $6.4 million (Redesigning Public Safety: Mental Health Emergency Response, 2023). Read MORE.

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What are Programs for People with Old Records?

Programs for People with Old Records, commonly known as “Reentry Programs” provide crisis assistance and long-term support to provide people exiting the justice system with pathways to stability. Some models focus on workforce development and employment placement; others provide transitional housing or wrap-around support. 

Examples of Programs for People with Old Records

Center for Employment Opportunities

New York, New York

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A New Way of Life

Los Angeles, California

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Riverside House

Miami, Florida

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How Programs for People with Old Records Make Communities Safer 

Study showed that in total, 14% of the participants in sports programs showed less reconviction and more positive outcomes (Do Sports Programs Prevent Crime and Reduce Reoffending? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on the Effectiveness of Sports Programs, 2021) . Read HERE.

A multi-state survey showed that participation in the reentry program was associated with longer time to arrest and fewer arrests after release ( Evaluating the Long-Term Effects of Prisoner Reentry Services on Recidivism: What Types of Services Matter?, 2016). Read MORE

An evaluation report found that only 2.5 percent of WAGEES program beneficiaries have returned to prison for committing new crimes while in the program in the more than two years since the program began(Investing Justice Resources to Address Community needs, 2018). Read MORE

The four themes around beneficial services were delivering practical help, fostering an emotional connection, continuity from inside to out, and receiving support from other members (Practically emotional. Young men’s perspectives on what works in reentry programs, 2020). Read MORE

Research shows that in 2018, nearly 570 of every 10,000 formerly incarcerated people experienced housing insecurity upon release (Four Ways to Improve Reentry for Formerly Incarcerated People with Behavioral Health Needs, 2022). Read HERE.

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What are Trauma Recovery Centers?

Trauma Recovery Centers (TRCs) are designed to comprehensively address a victim’s recovery challenges to stabilize people in crisis, support healing, and prevent re-victimization. TRCs combine accessible, immediate crisis assistance with free or affordable mental health support for survivors of violence. Dozens of localities are now building TRCs to help underserved survivors of violence.

Examples of Trauma Recovery Centers 

With over 50 member programs across the United States, the National Alliance of Trauma Recovery Centers (NATRC) is creating a world where every survivor of violence gets the help they need to heal by increasing access to trauma-informed quality care.

 TRC Sites:

The Central Iowa Recovery Center 

UC San Francisco Division of Trauma Recovery Services 

The Brenda Glass Trauma Center 


Examples of Trauma Recovery Centers


Community Based Public Safety Collective

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Richmond, CA

Advance Peace

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Washington DC

Alliance For Concerned Men

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Baltimore, MD

Newark, NJ

Newark Community Street Team

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Baton Rouge, LA

Baton Rouge Community Street Team

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Detroit, MI

Ceasefire Detroit

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King County, WA

King County Hospital-Based Violence Intervention

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Philadelphia, PA

Healing Hurt People

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Richmond, VA

Injury and Violence Prevention Program at VCU Medical Center

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How Trauma Recovery Centers Make Communities Safer

A multi-city study showed that twice as many clients served by a Trauma Recovery Centers used mental health services (Trauma Recovery Centers, 2020).  Read HERE.

A California-based evaluation study showed that the TRC was also far more effective in helping victims apply and access victim compensation benefits in California—56 percent of TRC participants submitted applications compared to 23 percent of usual care participants ( Quantitative Benefits of Trauma-Informed Care, 2017). Read MORE.

Through comprehensive services spanning from outreach to clinical mental health care, the TRC model holds promise to engage underserved victims of crime ( A Comprehensive Model for Underserved Victims of Violent Crime: Trauma Recovery Centers, 2017). Read MORE

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What are programs for Vulnerable Youth?

Programs for vulnerable youth are activities designed to involve people between the ages of 10 and 25, generally oriented towards youth development through recreation, social life, prevention, intervention, or education. These programs promote positive outcomes by providing opportunities, fostering positive relationships, and giving the support needed to develop young people’s assets and prevent risky behaviors.

Examples of Vulnerable Youth Programs


Oakland, California

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As I Plant This Seed

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

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Lowell, Massachusetts

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How Programs for Vulnerable Youth Make Communities Safer

A randomized control trial of Chicago’s Summer Youth Employment Programs (SYEP) found a 43 percent decrease in violent crime arrests among participants in the 16 months after they completed the program (Summer Youth Employment Programs for Violence Prevention: A Guide to Implementation and Costing, 2023). Read HERE.

Services using Positive Youth Development approaches were significantly related to higher levels of youth resilience (The role of positive youth development practices in building resilience and enhancing well-being for at-risk youth, 2015). Read HERE.

A Chicago-based study found that in the first year of the One Summer Chicago Plus Program, violent crime arrests dropped by 45 percent ( The Effects of Summer Jobs on Youth Violence, 2017). Read HERE.

Prevention programs have positive effects on preventing persistent juvenile delinquency (Practitioner review: Effective ingredients of prevention programs for youth at risk of persistent juvenile delinquency – recommendations for clinical practice, 2015). Read HERE.

Participation in a PYD program starting at a young age may be associated with reduced poverty in adulthood, possibly aided by higher educational attainment and resultant increased income (Long-term effects of a community-based positive youth development program for Black youth: health, education, and financial well-being in adulthood, 2022). Read HERE.

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What is Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design?

Crime prevention through environmental design programs are programs in which communities aim to reduce crime and violence by using architecture and urban planning to create or restore public spaces where the community can gather and feel a sense of safety. For example, the restoration of vacant lots and investment in a community’s landscape has been proven to reduce crime and gun violence. 

Examples of Environmental Design Programs


Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

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Reimagining Cleveland

Cleveland, Ohio

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Southwest Urban Arts Mural Project

Detroit, Michigan

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How Crime Prevention through Environmental Design Programs for Make Communities Safer

Housing repair intervention associated with a 21.9% reduction in total crime ( Association between Structural Housing Repairs for low-income homeowners and neighborhood crime, 2021). Read HERE.

A Philadelphia, Pennsylvania based study found that self-reported poor mental health showed a reduction of 62.8% for those living near greened vacant lots ( Effect of Greening Vacant Land on Mental Health of Community-Dwelling Adults, 2018). Read HERE.

During the 1-year program time period, violent crimes decreased significantly by over 22%. There was both a significant spatial diffusion of benefits and significantly fewer police officer-initiated actions resulting in arrests or citations ( Date-informed and place-based violent crime prevention: The Kansas City, Missouri Risk-Based Policing Initiative, 2021). Read MORE.

Holistic and integrative Third-Generation CPTED elevates liveability from the role of basic infrastructure and habitat to providing residents with opportunities to enhance their own personal aspirations and improve their quality of life ( Third-generation crime prevention through environmental design, 2019). Read MORE

A citywide survey showed that participants living near treated vacant lots reported significantly (-36.8%) reduced perceptions of crime (Citywide cluster randomized trial to restore blighted vacant land and its effects on violence, crime, and fear, 2018). Read HERE.

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What are Victim Services?

Survivors of violence may also benefit from specialized and free legal help to navigate relevant civil legal processes. Civil legal issues often emerge in the aftermath of victimization, and those issues can prevent stability and keep victims in crisis. Examples of relevant civil legal services include the need to get out of a lease to move into safer housing or assistance with obtaining a civil protection order against an abuser. 

Often, individuals experiencing domestic violence or human trafficking experience barriers to accessing crisis assistance such as safe emergency housing. Domestic violence shelters provide safety and connection to other crisis assistance, such as victims’ compensation, counseling, and relocation services. 

Examples of CVI programs

Examples of civil legal services for victims of domestic violence:

Broward Legal Aid

Broward County, Florida

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Legal Aid DC

Washington, DC

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Emergency domestic violence shelter programs:

Miami-Dade County Advocates for Victims Program

Miami-Dade County, Florida

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Sojourner Family Center

Milwaukee, Wisconsin

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DC Safe

Washington, DC

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How Victim Services Make Communities Safer

A national survey says that local programs were unable to meet 9,444 requests for services—primarily requests for housing or emergency shelter—because programs lacked sufficient resources ( 16th Annual Domestic Violence Counts Report, 2022). Read HERE.

Report shows that in 2019, only about 5% of violent crime victims had a compensation application approved (Creating a Model Victims’ Compensation Policy, 2022). Read HERE.

This article highlights the need for “broader, more inclusive understanding of acceptable evaluative data in the DV program context as well as in other organizations serving people with complex challenges ( Beyond the RCT: Integrating rigor and relevance to evaluate the outcomes of domestic violence programs, 2018). Read HERE.

A National survey shows that 52 percent of those surveyed wanted to relocate as a a result of their victimization, yet 44 percent of this group was unable to do so ( Crime Survivors Speak, 2022). Read HERE.

A National sample study showed that Victims’ probability of repeat victimization is not related to the arrest, and the use of victim services is associated with a 40 percent reduction in the risk of repeat victimization. Police notification and victim-centered services produce important reductions in repeat victimization ( The effects of arrest, reporting to the police, and victim services on intimate partner violence 2017). Read HERE

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